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Additional pictures shown down the page are lesser complex with intent if focusing on a specific topic. The KEY THING to REMEBER is the voltage are to be transported from the service panel to electrical items such as lighting,receptacles, heating fans, Ceiling Fans by using One of Three colors {Black, RED, or Blue} A typical example of 240 volt circuit in general is the use of two Black wires but they could be Black & Red or Black & Blue or Red & Blue. In general most 3 wire cables are Black, Red, & White which is the neutral. Also there is a bare copper wire to be used for Ground or in used in an item like Conduit the Ground Wire can be Green

In general as shown below the screw connections were used to received wires that are electrical powered and then pass on the electricity to a set of wires typically connected to another outlet. In other words a circuit breaker or fuse will supply electrical protection to several Receptacles and in some cases room lighting. The Key Point is in the older days the pass on connections were done on the Duplex Outlet Receptacles as shown in the picture below.

The drawing shows the wires separately but in general they are Romex meaning they are contained in a flexible tube which would have been difficult to present the primary objective in the drawing. THE NEUTRAL and GROUND BAR PLUS THE CIRCUIT BREAKER are in a SUB Panel or Service Panel. .

 

What is shown above is a wiring circuit that supports a Two Prong 3 Duplex Outlet which generally is Romex type wiring one is electrical power source and the other is used to suppy electrical power generally to another receptacle The Drawing is shown below. The Key difference in wiring technique is the use of wire nuts to cover twisted wire connections and include a short wire known as Pig Tail to connect to a Duplex Receptacle. The example below shows a GFCI but it is standard technique in today's wiring for regular Duplex Outlets. The Key GFCI Connection screws is those aligned with the word LINE as connection to LOAD will likely cause the GFCI to not function correctly.

SUMMARY: remove the wires from one side of the standard Duplex Receptacle and twist them together, then add a pigtail of appropriate color by also twisting, and then cover the wire junction - 3 wires- with a red Wire Nut and besure to twist the nut onto the twisted wire connection as shown in the drawing below. Then do the same thing for the other set of wires.

White colored wire pigtail to the Wide Side Slot Screw - LINE - and Black to the narrower slot screw - LINE.

 

General Wiring technique and where to hook the wires is shown in the drawing above.In other words the wire with power needs to be connected to the screws aligned with LINE seen on the back of the connector and if need be a second set of wires can be connected to the LOAD screws if there is a need for a second receptacle I.E.Standard Duplex Recptacle, and the receptacle needs to have a tag install stating GFCI protected.

The drawing below is configured to show GENERALLY PREFERRED TECHIQUE hook up if the Duplex Receptacles are electrically connected using Romex.

 

The Romex"Yellow Example", shows the different colored wires are removed from the Standard Duplex receptacle and the whites are twisted together and combined with a white pigtail and then connected to the screw associated with the Wide Slot aligned with LINE on the GFCI. Keep in mind the twisted wire connections are bare and thus need to be covered with a Red Wire Nut which should be twisted until tight on the twisted bare wires. The same is the case with the black except it is connected to the screw associated with the narrow slot. The bare coper wires are twisted and it pigtail connected to the green screw on the GFCI. The yellow is the Romex cover material which in the drawing is only a few inches but in real world is likely several feet most of the time.

Also keep in mind in the drawing where the black, white and copper colored wires touch each other the colors indcate insulation which means there is no electrical connection however keep in mind the insulation has to be removed, roughly 1/2 inch, at the end which is connected to a screw in some case pushed straight in and the screw tightened and other cases twisted into a U and wrapped around the screw and then the screw tightened.

The drawing shows the top section plug socket as Line and the Bottom socket as LOAD but keep in mind the could be reversed as position and it is the screw connection associated with LINE that needs the wiring associated with electrical power as the LOAD screws could be connected to a wire set for a standard Duplex Recptacle that needs to be labeled GFCI protected.

 

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BE SURE POWER OFF - MOST IMPORTANT IS TO THE ELECTRICAL POWER TO THE RECEPTACLE INTENDED TO CHANGED OR EXAMINED

As an Electrical Contractor having been called to examine homes that were constructed in the 60s &70s discovered that in many situations the recently installed Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI) were not installed so they functioned properly.

The purpose of this web page is to present information of typical wiring in the early years and techniques that were standard then and generally not recomended now.

In general as shown below the screw connections were used to received wires that are electrical powered and then pass on the electricity to a set of wires typically connected to another outlet. In other words a circuit breaker or fuse will supply electrical protection to several Receptacles and in some cases room lighting. The Key Point is in the older days the pass on connections were done on the Duplex Outlet Receptacles as shown in the picture below.

The drawing shows the wires separately but in general they are Romex meaning they are contained in a flexible tube which would have been difficult to present the primary objective in the drawing. THE NEUTRAL and GROUND BAR PLUS THE CIRCUIT BREAKER are in a SUB Panel or Service Panel. .

 

What is shown above is a wiring circuit that supports 3 Duplex Outlets which can be in separate rooms or all in the same room. The end item objective is to show how to replace the near the sink outlet with a GFCI Outlet. The Drawing is shown below.

 

The Key difference in wiring technique is the use of wire nuts to cover twisted wire connections and include a short wire known as Pig Tail to connect to a Duplex Receptacle. The example below shows a GFCI but it is standard technique in today's wiring for regular Duplex Outlets. The Key GFCI Connection screws is those aligned with the word LINE as connection to LOAD will likely cause the GFCI to not function correctly.

 

SUMMARY: remove the wires from one side of the standard Duplex Receptacle and twist them together, then add a pigtail of appropriate color by also twisting, and then cover the wire junction - 3 wires- with a red Wire Nut and besure to twist the nut onto the twisted wire connection as shown in the drawing below. Then do the same thing for the other set of wires.

White colored wire pigtail to the Wide Side Slot Screw - LINE - and Black to the narrower slot screw - LINE.

 

General Wiring technique and where to hook the wires is shown in the drawing above.In other words the wire with power needs to be connected to the screws aligned with LINE seen on the back of the connector and if need be a second set of wires can be connected to the LOAD screws if there is a need for a second receptacle I.E.Standard Duplex Recptacle, and the receptacle needs to have a tag install stating GFCI protected.

The drawing below is configured to show hook up if the Duplex Receptaacles are electrically connected using Romex.

 

The Romex"Yellow Example", shows the different colored wires are removed from the Standard Duplex receptacle and the whites are twisted together and combined with a white pigtail and then connected to the screw associated with the Wide Slot aligned with LINE on the GFCI. Keep in mind the twisted wire connections are bare and thus need to be covered with a Red Wire Nut which should be twisted until tight on the twisted bare wires. The same is the case with the black except it is connected to the screw associated with the narrow slot. The bare coper wires are twisted and it pigtail connected to the green screw on the GFCI. The yellow is the Romex cover material which in the drawing is only a few inches but in real world is likely several feet most of the time.

Also keep in mind in the drawing where the black, white and copper colored wires touch each other the colors indcate insulation which means there is no electrical connection however keep in mind the insulation has to be removed, roughly 1/2 inch, at the end which is connected to a screw in some case pushed straight in and the screw tightened and other cases twisted into a U and wrapped around the screw and then the screw tightened.

The drawing shows the top section plug socket as Line and the Bottom socket as LOAD but keep in mind the could be reversed as position and it is the screw connection associated with LINE that needs the wiring associated with electrical power as the LOAD screws could be connected to a wire set for a standard Duplex Recptacle that needs to be labeled GFCI protected.

REASON FOR TWIST & WIRENUT Electric Wire is generally round like a water pipe. Water traverses through the pipe where electrical energy traverses the exterior of the wire. The surface area of the wire is defined to be able to support a specific amount of electrical energy. I.E 14 GA wire is rated at 15 amps, 12 GA is rated at 20 amps and 10 GA is rated at 30 amps. The smaller the gauge number the bigger diameter of the wire and the bigger the diameter the greater the circumference.

By Twisting wires I.E. 2,3,4,5 using a pair of pliers (bare wire with insulation removed typically 1/2 to 3/4 inch) the surface of the connection is equivalent to the circumference of a single wire. Then twisting a Wirenut over the twisted wires the Wirenut assures the twisted wire connection is tight.

The comment about connected wires heating is also similar to using the Duplex Receptacle as a wire connection device simply meaning that the wires could twist about the screws and result it heating so at least the twisted wire connection is potential for the least of problems.

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What is shown below is a Duplex Receptacle that needs to be removed and replaced with a GFCI.

 

What is shown below is installation of a GFCI not using Wire Nuts therefore the Duplex Receptal to the right and the potential of others not shown will be protected by the GFCI which may not be desired, especially if the other Duplex Recptacle are in other rooms and also to point out that if desired the other Duplex Recptacles require a label stating GFCI Protected. In the other situation it is likely an advatage if all receptacles are protected in I.E a bathroom so in that circumstance this would be the way to make that happen. So in short terms this technique of hook up can be good but also not good if as example the other Duplex Receptacles are in other rooms.

 

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